Cannabinoids and Glaucoma
Aqueous humour is a colourless liquid that nourishes and oxygenates the structures of the eyeball without a blood supply, such as the cornea and crystalline. It is produced in the ciliary bodies of the posterior chamber of the eye and travels through the pupil to the anterior chamber where it is reabsorbed by the trabecular meshwork. Any factor that slows or blocks the flow will cause a pathological increase of intraocular pressure (IOP), which generates glaucoma.
Glaucoma can be hereditary, congenital, or occur as an adverse effect of some drugs or because of chronic illnesses such as diabetes. As the disease evolves, nerve fibers from the optic nerve are progressively lost, which may end in the loss of vision.
The usual treatment of glaucoma, one of the leading causes of blindness in the world, consists of the administration of intraocular pressure reducing drugs (IOP) or the drainage of excess aqueous humour.
The use of medicinal cannabis in conditions such as glaucoma is mainly focused on the use of oils from CBD and other cannabinoids, which allow controlled use and have no psychoactive effects that prevent the person from performing normally in their day to day life.
Effects of cannabinoids on Glaucoma
- Intraocular pressure reduction
Currently, we are studying the therapeutic effects of medicinal cannabis on glaucoma with the aim of seeking therapeutic strategies aimed at controlling the cell death of the retina and avoiding the loss of vision.
Treatments for Glaucoma using Cannabinoids
Current studies suggest that cannabinoids may reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) and could be used effectively in topical therapies for retinal neurodegenerative diseases, either alone or as a combination treatment with other drugs .
Cannabinoids are well tolerated after topical application and are attributed with a neuroprotective effect on the ganglion cells of the retina. There are also more and more scientific observations which indicate that endocannabinoids are relevant in ocular physiology, influencing the maintenance of intraocular pressure, the physiology of the photoreception and neurotransmission in the retina , as well as in the neuroprotection of retinal ganglion neurons .
Bibliography for Glaucoma and Cannabinoids
Merrit, John C. et al. Effect of Marihuana on Intraocular and Blood Pressure in Glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 1980 Mar;87(3):222-8
 Yan Wei et al. Presence and regulation of cannabinoid receptors in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Mol Vis. 2009; 15: 1243–1251.
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