The most studied cannabinoid for its therapeutic effects for various ailments and/or symptoms.

Call Today - +34 630 109 176

Cannabidiol (CBD)

More than 100 cannabinoids have been identified within the cannabis plant, that is, chemical compounds found naturally in the plant. One of the most abundant is cannabidiol (CBD), which can represent up to 45% of the plant extract. Many of the Cannabis Sativa strains give rise to CBD or cannabidiol but do so in small amounts. In fact, only certain branches of the plant contain sufficient concentration of CBD to extract it in a useful way.

The first time that CBD was isolated from the cannabis plant was between 1930 and 1940 by researchers at the University of Illinois (USA). However, it was not until the 1960s when Professor Rafael Mechoulam managed to describe its structure and chemical composition. Since 2013, PubMed, an American medical research database, has indexed more than 1,500 studies on cannabidiol. Because of this, many scientists consider CBD to be one of the most important cannabinoids discovered to date.

Infographics on Cannabidiol

Infografia Cannabidiol propiedades terapeuticas | Kalapa Clinic

What is Cannabidiol and what is it for

Compared to other cannabinoids, cannabidiol has gained much importance in the therapeutic field because it lacks the typical psychoactive properties of THC (not acting through the brain’s CB1 receptors responsible for psychoactivity), which are reduced when using CBD and THC together.

This means similar amounts of CBD and THC (ratio of 1:1 or even higher THC) can be administered without strong adverse side effects due to high amounts of THC (such as the psychoactive effect, tachycardia, anxiety attacks, among others) (Zuardi and al., 1982) [1].

Although much remains to be investigated on the properties of cannabidiol, there are several existing studies that have demonstrated their benefits from a clinical point of view.

Studied therapeutic effects

  • Anxiolytic
  • Analgesic
  • Antiemetic
  • Antiepileptic
  • Antitumor
  • Antioxidant
  • Anti Inflammatory
  • Antipsychotic
  • Immunomodulators
  • Antibacterial and antifungal
  • Neuroprotective
  • Antirheumatic
  • Sleep Inducer

Do you want to know more about the use of cannabidiol?

We have a team of specialists waiting to answer any questions

Clinical research on CBD

Although all the benefits of cannabidiol are not fully known, there are studies that have proven its benefits from a clinical point of view. For example, researchers have shown its relationship with the immune system. Thus, it has been verified that, in some cellular lines of the immune system, CBD has the capacity to inhibit the production of some cytokines (IL-8, IL-10, TNF-D, IFNJ).

These studies directly relate CBD to beneficial effects on inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. Thus, CBD has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anxiolytic and antipsychotic properties. There are also studies that have related cannabidiol to chronic pain relief or to treat epilepsy, amongst other illnesses.

Other research has focused on the effects of cannabidiol on arthritis. One trial with mice showed that a treatment with CBD (both oral and intraperitoneal) managed to block the disease, thus paralyzing its progression. These effects are linked to the immunosuppressive activity and the anti-inflammatory properties of this cannabinoid (Malfait et al., 2000).

In a disease such as cancer cannabis oil in cancer causes a sedative effect in most cases and inhibits the transmission of nerve signals associated with pain. It has also been witnessed that CBD reduces the growth of human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo in mice, and reduces their invasiveness.

Source: Universidad de Sevilla

The entourage effect and Cannabidiol

The majority of scientific studies about medical cannabis focus on finding out the effects of the different types of cannabinoids, especially, THC and CBD. The cannabis plant has many more components than their cannabinoids, they have a number other factors like terpenes, that also produce their own effects, or secondary effects. Limiting research to a single cannabinoid reduces the effectiveness of the plant, because what really stands out from the plant are the effects from the combined elements. However, the results of this combination are different for each person. This interaction between the different compounds of cannabis is known as an entourage effect.

The entourage effect is the interaction between phytocannabinoids such as CBD and the other elements present in the plant. In the case of Cannabis Sativa L, interactions between terpenes, flavonoids and at the time of ingestion, with endocannabinoids such as anandamide, are being studied.

There is limited information about the entourage effect, however, Dr. Ethan Russo from the University of Massachusetts published a study on the synergy of phytocannabinoids and terpenes back in 2011.

Sometimes there are pathologies that cannot be treated with just one cannabinoid. The synergy between different cannabinoids also produce the entourage effect, which is very useful for treating diseases in which a single component is not enough. Several research studies explain the main medicinal benefits of cannabis, such as its analgesic effects. However, there are other studies that support CBD and other components of cannabis combined, which can, increase its benefits, reduce adverse effects, and produce less toxicity than with THC alone.

The range of effects of phytocannabinoids is very wide which is why it is necessary to continue investigating their therapeutic potentials

That is why several therapeutic references focus on oils with a full spectrum, to promote the entourage effect. It is being found in therapeutic practice that the difference between the use of isolated CBD, requires people to apply a dose 3 times higher than when a full spectrum is administered.

On the other hand, when terpenes or flavonoids are subsequently added to CBD, the entourage effect is greatly diminished.

It is currently known that cannabinoids are useful for treating depression, anxiety, insomnia, dementia and addiction, among others. Russo also addressed these pathologies in his studies and concluded that limonene and linalool could contribute by enhancing the effects of CBD. 

Do you want to know more about the use of cannabidiol?

We have a team of specialists waiting to answer any questions

How to use cannabidiol

There are different products on the market that contain CBD taken from certified hemp. CBD Oil is one of the best-known products. The oil can be ingested or used as a compound in creams and ointments, sprays and teas.

The effect of the cannabidiol seems to take between 15 and 30 minutes. There are also CBD capsules or infusions.

In the case of the sprays, its operation is very simple. It is a question of placing the nozzle below the tongue (sublingual) and taking the dose prescribed by the specialist. In the case of infusions, it is a matter of preparing a conventional infusion and adding some type of milk or cream to help the cannabinoids dissolve correctly.

Although CBD is still being researched in countries around the world, in Spain products composed of CBD and THC (the latter at a level below 0.2%) can be consumed legally and without a doctor’s prescription in order to buy it.

In Spain there is only one drug composed of cannabidiol called Sativex, this is a pharmacological solution developed by GW Pharmaceutical composed of CBD and THC (ratio 1:1), created for the treatment of pain and spasticity in people with multiple sclerosis. [3]

The effect of Cannabidiol takes 15 to 30 minutes to appear. Depending on the route of administration.

Cannabidiol calculator

When using cannabidiol, one of the main points is knowing how to quantify the milligrams of cannabidiol that the patient should ingest. Depending on the concentration of cannabidiol in the CBD oil, the dose to be administered can be determined.

In order to help the patient to have a first orientation of these doses, there are web pages that offer a CBD oil calculator , based on the analyses that they have made to their products, which allows to quantify the CBD in each drop.

Obviously, from Kalapa Clinic we recommend the help of a health professional in the administration and dosage of any substance that a patient wants to take.

estructura molecular cannabidiol
Estructura Molecular del Cannabidiol

Cannabidiol from a chemical point of view

Cannabidiol is chemically expressed as 2-(6-isopropenyl-3-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-5-Pentyl-1.3-Benzenediol.

It is integrated with the family of terpene phenols, substances that usually have a carbocyclic structure with 21 carbons and are usually formed by three rings: cyclohexene, Tetrahydropyran and benzene

Its molecular form is C21H30O2 and its molecular weight is 314,4636. Its melting point is 66 ° C and its boiling point is 180 º C. At room temperature it forms a reddish crystallization.

It is a molecule that is insoluble in water, but soluble in organic solvents and in fats. [4]

The therapeutic effect caused by cannabidiol is due to its solubility since it interferes with the nociceptive response of nerve cells, whose cellular structure is highly lipidic.

Due to this solubility, homemade preparations requiring this product must have a medium-high fat content, using, for example, milk or oil as a base. For a therapeutic effect, it is always preferable to use natural and organic oils as bases.

For a therapeutic effect it is always preferable to use bases in organic natural oils.

Among the preparations with a high coefficient of effectiveness are those with a full spectrum (Full Spectrum).

CBD is an INSOLUBLE molecule in water, but soluble in organic solvents and fats

Bibliography on Cannabidiol and its therapeutic use

[1] Zuardi y cols., Action of cannabidiol on the anxiety and other effects produced by delta 9-THC in normal subjects. 1982.

[2] Di Marzo V, Pisticelli F. The endocannabinoid system and its modulation by phytocannabinoids. Neurotherapeutics. 2015, 12(4):692-698.

[3] OREJA-GUEVARA, C. Tratamiento de la espasticidad en la esclerosis múltiple: nuevas perspectivas con el uso de cannabinoides. Rev Neurol 2012; 55: 421-30

[4] SEIC. Guía Básica sobre los cannabinoides. 2002.

Do you want to know more about the use of cannabidiol?

We have a team of specialists waiting to answer any questions